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Autism spectrum disorders: autistic phenotypes and complicated mechanisms 
 
Autism spectrum disorders: autistic phenotypes and complicated mechanisms
  Xi-Cheng Zhang, Li-Qi Shu, Xing-Sen Zhao, Xue-Kun Li
 [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]   Pageviews: 1472 Times
 
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a pervasive developmental neurological disorder, is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive patterns of interests or behaviors. The mechanism of ASDs is complex, and genetic components and epigenetic modifications play important roles. In this review, we summarized the recent progresses of ASDs focusing on the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. We also briefly discussed current animal models of ASD and the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies in studying ASD.
Data sources: Original research articles and literature reviews published in PubMed-indexed journals.
Results: Individuals with ASDs exhibit a set of phenotypes including neurological alteration. Genetic components including gene mutation, copy-number variations, and epigenetic modifications play important and diverse roles in ASDs. The establishment of animal models and development of new-generation sequencing technologies have contributed to reveal the complicated mechanisms underlying autistic phenotypes.
Conclusions: Dramatic progress has been made for understanding the roles of genetic and epigenetic components in ASD. Future basic and translational studies should be carried out towards those candidate therapeutic targets.
 
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World Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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